Teaching the Patient Care Process

Teaching the Patient Care Process

Primary Contact:  Keri Hager, Pharm.D., khager@umn.edu


Blog Posts


Concept Mapping, Reflective Writing, and Patchwork Assessment in a Pharmaceutical Care Course

What is unique about how you’ve used concept mapping?
Concept mapping, or visually showing the relationship between topics, has been used in classrooms at every education level. We paired concept mapping with reflective writing and patchwork assessment in our teaching of pharmaceutical care. First year students completed three rounds of concept mapping and two reflective writing assignments, receiving feedback from their peers and instructors at each iteration. By incorporating reflective writing and patchwork assessment, students had an opportunity to examine the progression of their own learning over the semester.

How are the results being used to refine instruction?
In addition to serving as a tool for students to connect and organize course material, concept maps provided the course instructors a snapshot of student learning. By utilizing an iterative concept mapping process, we were able to identify points of confusion, see the evolution in students’ thinking, and modify what we did in the classroom to meet student learning needs. For example, when reviewing concept maps we noticed many students struggled with the relationship between medication dispensing and the practice of pharmaceutical care. As a result, we spent additional time clarifying these concepts in class and saw improvement in their understanding on the next concept map submission.

Peer Teaching to Introduce Pharmaceutical Care to Incoming Pharmacy Students

The objective of this initiative was to design and assess an activity where first and second-year pharmacy students convened and engaged in peer teaching regarding the major components of Pharmaceutical Care and succeeding in the broader first-year pharmacy curriculum. Second-year pharmacy students individually created concept maps illustrating the main components of Pharmaceutical Care to be used as teaching tools with first-year students. First-year students were given a brief introduction to Pharmaceutical Care (by faculty), and spent time preparing questions to ask their second-year colleagues. Two second-year students were then matched with two first-year students for a two-part peer-teaching event. During the event, the second-year students used their concept maps to teach first-year students about Pharmaceutical Care followed by time answering students’ questions and providing advice on a variety of aspects of the curriculum and pharmacy school in general. Each student completed documentation of the peer experience, which included questions about the effectiveness of the teaching, things to do differently in the future, and the usefulness of the exercise. The documentation was analyzed via content analysis. In addition, instructors evaluated the concept maps based on their effectiveness as a teaching tool for novices. Of the 166 concept maps rated for teaching effectiveness, 145 were rated good, 18 were rated as better, and 3 as best. In addition, researchers identified themes emerging from content analysis of survey responses. The main themes include Impact of Teaching and Learning Pharmaceutical Care, Benefits of Broader Curriculum Discussion, and Positive First and Second Year Connections.

Pharmaceutical Care Experience Elective

We are piloting and assessing an elective introductory pharmacy practice experience in an ambulatory care clinic setting. The Pharmaceutical Care Experience builds on the first year Foundations of Pharmaceutical Care course and provides an early opportunity to practice pharmaceutical care in a primary care clinic setting. This elective will allow students to assess each patient’s unique medication experience and drug-related needs through patient interviews. Students will use this information to develop a patient-centered care plan under the guidance of a practitioner mentor. In addition to capturing student performance data through practitioner mentors’ assessment of “entrustable professional activities,” we are also collecting qualitative reflection data from both the students and the practitioner mentors.