Naloxone: A Critical Tool to Fight the Opioid Crisis
This presentation is provided for pharmacists and providers who wish to learn more about factors that increase an individuals' risk of opioid overdose, identify signs and symptoms of opioid overdose, and understand the pros and cons of different naloxone formulations. The presentation will review resources patients may use to access naloxone, describe legal considerations for prescribing and dispensing of naloxone in Minnesota, and discuss available naloxone and opioid resources for healthcare providers and patients.
This presentation on naloxone can be viewed by clicking the play button within the video frame below. Additional resources and references related to this topic have been provided in the tabs beneath the video.
- Learning Objectives
- Administering Naloxone
- Reading Materials
- Online Resources
- Continuing Education
- State some factors that may increase risk of opioid overdose
- Identify signs and symptoms of opioid toxicity
- List pros and cons of different naloxone formulations
- Review resources patients may use to access naloxone
- Describe legal considerations for prescribing and dispensing of naloxone in Minnesota
- Discuss available naloxone and opioid resources for healthcare providers and patients
Laura Palombi, PharmD, MPH, MAT
Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Affiliate Assistant Professor, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health
Dr. Palombi is a faculty member in the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy and School of Public Health. She has worked for four years to address substance use disorder, including Drug Court, in part by organizing this presentation. She has presented variations of this presentation to many different audiences, including health care professionals and community members, using her understanding of the challenges that come with opioid prescribing and naloxone distribution.
Heather Blue, PharmD, BCPS, BCGP
Assistant Professor of Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Dr. Heather Blue is an Assistant Professor at the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy- Duluth campus. She completed her PharmD at the University of Minnesota and completed a PGY-1 residency at Allina Health Mercy and Unity hospitals. After residency, she worked as clinical pharmacist at Mercy Hospital. Her current research is based on her clinical practice in the emergency department at St. Luke’s Hospital Duluth, with an emphasis in opioid overdose reduction strategies.
Lauren Hanson, PharmD
Essentia Health – Duluth
Dr. Hanson completed her PharmD at the University of Wisconsin with a Patient Safety Certificate. Her background in this topic includes serving on the Chronic Opioid Analgesic Treatment Steering Committee at Essentia Health during 2016-2017 and presenting on Naloxone to pharmacists and health providers in the Duluth, Minn., area. Dr. Hanson has also worked with St. Louis and Carlton Counties of Minnesota developing action plans and education opportunities with the Pharmacy and Public Health Partnership for Naloxone as well as the Opioid Abuse Response Strategies Group.
Elisabeth Bilden, MD
St. Louis County Public Health, Essentia Health – Duluth
Dr. Bilden is a hospital-based medical toxicologist for Esentia Health and a consultant for the Minnesota Poison Control System. Her background as a physician with specialized training in toxicology, as well as her past role as medical consultant for St. Louis county, give her experience and specialized skills related to naloxone and appropriate opioid prescribing. She is connected to networks across the state and has an excellent working knowledge of trends in medical toxicology and public health initiatives related to substance use.
The University of Minnesota has a conflict of interest policy that requires course faculty to disclose whether they have financial interests or affiliations with organizations with a direct substantial interest in the subject matter of their programs. The following information was received from Drs. Palombi, Blue, Hanson, and Bilden.
Laura Palombi, PharmD, MPH, MAT
No relationships to disclose. Dr. Palombi will not discuss off-label or investigational uses of commercial products.
Heather Blue, PharmD, BCPS, BCGP
No relationships to disclose. Dr. Blue will not discuss off-label or investigational uses of commercial products.
Lauren Hanson, PharmD
No relationships to disclose. Dr. Hanson will not discuss off-label or investigational uses of commercial products.
Elisabeth Bilden, MD
No relationships to disclose. Dr. Bilden will not discuss off-label or investigational uses of commercial products.
The following is a short summary on how to administer naloxone in an opioid overdose situation. For more complete information and instructions, watch the presentation above.
- Short video presentation from the MN Department of Health on what to do when someone overdoses on opioids: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GPbqPDOol14
- Steps to take when someone overdoses on opioids:
- Elicit a pain response by rubbing fist on the sternum; if there is no response, follow these steps…
- Call 911
- Get your naloxone
- Give 2 rescue breaths
- Administer a dose of naloxone
- Continue giving rescue breaths
- If little to no response after 2 minutes, provide another dose of naloxone (can continue providing doses as they are available every 2 minutes until help arrives or patient responds)
- Continue giving rescue breaths until help arrives
Opioid Prescribing Resources
Prescription Opioid Usages and Abuse Relationships (Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment article)
Opioid Prescribing Improvement Program (Minnesota Dept of Human Services)
Prescriber Role in Preventing Diversion of Prescription Drugs (US Dept of Health & Human Services)
Regulating Opioid Prescribing Through Prescription Monitoring Programs (Pain Medicine article)
Methadone in Primary Care (New England Journal of Medicine article)
Moving Addiction Care to the Mainstream - Improving the Quality of Buprenorphine Treatment (New England Journal of Medicine article)
Primary Care and the Opioid-Overdose Crisis - Buprenorphine Myths and Realities (New England Journal of Medicine article)
2017 Legislation Affecting the Practice of Pharmacy (Minnesota Legislature)
Collecting Pharmaceuticals from Households and Long Term Care Facilities (Minnesota Pollution Control Agency)
Opiate Antagonist Protocol (Minnesota Board of Pharmacy)
Opiate Antagonist Protocol implementation message (Minnesota Dept of Health)
Naloxone Access: A Practical Guideline for Pharmacists (College of Psychiatric & Neurologic Pharmacists)
Addiction and Abuse Prevention Resources
Over the Counter Medicine Safety - community leader resource (Scholastic)
Prescription Drug Abuse: Teens in Danger - teacher resource (Scholastic)
Straight Talk on Prescription Drugs - teacher resource (Scholastic)
Straight Talk on Prescription Drugs - student resource (Scholastic)
Syringe Services Information
Effect of Legal Status of Syringe Sales on Syringe Purchases (Int Journal of Drug Policy article)
Guide to Establishing Syringe Services Programs in Rural, At-Risk Areas (Comer Family Foundation)
Impact Evaluation of a Policy Intervention for HIV Prevention (AIDS and Behavior article)
Minnesota HIV/AIDS Epidemiologic Profile - December 2015
Ongoing Battle for Syringe Exchange (Journal of AIDS and HIV Infections article)
Safe Disposal Options for Needles and Syringes (Minnesota Pollution Control Agency)
“Administer Naloxone Overdose Response.” Harm Reduction Coalition
"Calculating Total Shareholder Return." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Drug label information for naloxone hydrochloride
Earth911, Minnesota safe medications disposal locator
Fast-Tracker, an online mental health and substance use disorder resources hub
Minnesota Medical Association's Pain, Opioids, and Addiction Lecture Series
Minnesota Pharmacy Syringe/Needle Access Initiative website
Minnesota Poison Control Center Training Course; Module 5, Units 3 and 4
Minnesota Prescription Monitoring Program website
"NALOXONE ACCESS: A Practical Guideline for Pharmacists." College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists
"Naloxone at Pharmacies." British Columbia Centre for Disease Control
"Naloxone Prescribing and Dispensing Questions." Minnesota Board of Pharmacy
Opioid Dashboard from the MN Department of Health
"Overdose Death Rates." National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
"The Opioid Epidemic: By the Numbers." Department of Health & Human Services
Prescribe to Prevent Naloxone Product Chart
"S.F. No. 1900 - Administration of Opiate Angagonists." Minnesota Senate
"Treatment Statistics." National Institute on Drug Abuse (login required)
"Understanding Naloxone." Harm Reduction Coalition
"EVZIO: Highlights of Prescribing Information." kaleo, Inc.
NARCAN® Administration training video
"NARCAN: Package Insert and Label Information." DrugInserts.com
NARCAN Quick Start Guide
Belz, D., Lieb, J., Rea, T., and Eisenberg, M. (2006) Naloxone use in a tiered-response emergency medical services system. Prehosp Emerg Care 10: 468-471.
Bird SM, Fischbacher CM, Graham L, Fraser A. Impact of Opioid Substitution Therapy for Scotland’s prisoners on drug-related deaths soon after prisoner release. (2015) Addiction. 1617-1624.
Buajordet, I.m Naess, A., Jacobsen, D. and Brors, O. (2004) Adverse events after naloxone treatment of episodes of suspected acute opioid overdose. Eur J Emerg Med 11: 19-23.
Coffin PO, Behar R, Rowe C, et al. Nonrandomized intervention study of naloxone coprescription for primary care patients receiving long-term opioid therapy for pain. Ann Intern Med 2016. DOI: 10.7326/M15-2771.
Doe-Simkins M, Quinn E, Ziming X, Sorensen-Alawad A, Hackman H, Ozonoff A, Walley A. Overdose rescuers by trained and untrained participants and change in opioid use among substance-using participants in overdose education and naloxone distribution programs: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Public Health 14: 297 (2014).
Dowell, Deborah, MD, Tamara Haegerich M., PhD, and Roger Chou, MD. "CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain—United States, 2016." JAMA 315.15 (2016): 1624
Dowling, Jonathonm, Geoffrey Isbister K., Carl Kirkpatrick M J, Daya Naidoo, and Andis Graudins. "Population Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous, Intramuscular, and Intranasal Naloxone in Human Volunteers." Therapeutic Drug Monitoring PAP (2008)
Dunn, Kate M., KW Saunders, CM Rutter, CJ Banta-Green, JO Merrill, MD Sullivan, CM Weisner, MJ Silverberg, CI Campbell, BM Psaty, and M. Von Korff. "Opioid Prescriptions for Chronic Pain and Overdose." Annals of Internal Medicine Ann Intern Med 152.2 (2010): 85
Jones, Jermaine, Campbell, Aimee, Metz, Verna, Comer, Sandra. No evidence of compensatory drug use risk behavior among heroin users after receiving take-home naloxone. Addictive Behaviors 71 (2017): 104106.
MacArthur GJ, van Velzen E, Palmateer N, Kimber J, Pharris A, Hope V, et al. "Interventions to prevent HIV and hepatitis C in people who inject drugs: a review of reviews to assess evidence of effectiveness." International Journal of Drug Policy. 2014;25(1):34–52.
McDonald, Rebecca, and John Strang. "Are Take-home Naloxone Programmes Effective? Systematic Review Utilizing Application of the Bradford Hill Criteria." Addiction 111.7 (2016): 1177-187
Park, T. W., R. Saitz, D. Ganoczy, M. Ilgen A., and A. Bohnert S. B. "Benzodiazepine Prescribing Patterns and Deaths from Drug Overdose among US Veterans Receiving Opioid Analgesics: Case-cohort Study." BMJ 350.Jun10 9 (2015)
Venner KL, Donovan DM, Campbell ANC, Wendt DC, Rieckmann T, Radin SM, Momper SL, Rosa CL. Future directions for medication assisted treatment for opioid use disorder with American Indian/Alaska Natives. Addictive Behaviors. 86 (2018): 111-117.
Wagne K, Valente TW, Casanova M, Partovi S, Mendenhall BM, Hundley JH, Bonzalez M, Unger J. Evaluation of an overdose prevention and response training programme for injection drug users in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles, CA. International Journal of Drug Policy. 21 (2010): 186-193.
Walley AY, Xuan Z, Hackman HH, et al. Opioid overdose rates and implementation of overdose education and nasal naloxone distribution in Massachusetts: interrupted time series analysis. BMJ 2013;346:f174. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.f174.
Wermeling, D. P. "Review of Naloxone Safety for Opioid Overdose: Practical Considerations for New Technology and Expanded Public Access." Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety 6.1 (2015)
Williams, Jess. "Drug Overdose in Our Backyard Is Breeding Home-Grown Solutions." IRETA. Institute for Research, Education & Training in Addictions, 03 Dec. 2015
Wodak A., and A. Cooney. "Do Needle Syringe Programs Reduce HIV Infection Among Injecting Drug Users: A Comprehensive Review of the International Evidence." Substance Use & Misuse. 41 (2006): 777-813.
Wolfe, Susan, PhD, Dennis Bouffard L., PhD, and Vania Modesto-Lowe, MD, MPH. "The Opioid Crisis and the Physician's Role in Contributing to Its Resolution: Step One - Prevention of Overdoses." Connecticut Medicine 80.6 (2016)
In support of improving patient care, University of Minnesota, Interprofessional Continuing Education is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.
Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE)
This activity is eligible for up to 1 ACPE contact hour. Information from the participant verification form (which includes your NABP # and month and date of birth) will be uploaded to The Monitor within four weeks. UAN JA0000810-0000-18-051-H01-P.
American Medical Association (AMA) Credit Designation Statement
The University of Minnesota, Interprofessional Continuing Education designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Other Health Care Professionals
Nurse practitioners, nurses, and other health care professionals who participate in this CE activity may submit their Statement of Participation to their appropriate accrediting organizations or state boards for consideration of credit. The participant is responsible for determining whether this activity meets the requirements for acceptable continuing education.
In order to receive continuing education credit for this online activity, you must complete the following evaluation and submit the requested information so that credits can be awarded. Questions about CE credits for this activity should be sent to the Continuing Pharmacy Education office at firstname.lastname@example.org.