Requirements for PhD Degree
Coursework leading to the PhD degree consists of study in major field, a minor field, or a collateral field of knowledge and/or a special research technique. The total content of the major is individually and flexibly constructed by the student in consultation with the major advisor based upon the needs of the student and the advice of the major advisor. The minor area will include a minimum of one-sixth of the total coursework. A collateral field of study or a special research technique must include a minimum of nine credits.
The PhD degree requires a minimum of 35 graduate credits in the Social and Administrative Pharmacy core. In addition, 12 credits of a minor or supporting program are required. The doctoral program requires a minimum of 47 graduate credits excluding the 24 Doctoral Thesis credits required by the Graduate School.
Successful completion of two written preliminary examinations is required. One written exam concentrates on research design, methodological issues, and statistical analysis. The second written examination covers material specific to the area of Social and Administrative Pharmacy. In addition, students must make an oral presentation to a meeting of department faculty and graduate students on the rationale for the thesis and the proposed methodology.
The final oral examination for the PhD is a defense of the thesis. This must be done within five calendar years after passing the preliminary oral examination.
Social and Administrative Pharmacy (SAPh) core (Ph.D.) REQUIRED:
- SAPH 5100: Pro-Seminar (1 credit)
- SAPH 8100: Seminar (enrollment required each semester for at least 8 semesters for a total of 8 credits) or equivalent
- SAPH 8173: Principles and Methods of Implementing Research (3 credits)
- SAPH 8235: Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy (3 credits)
- SAPH 8420: Social and Behavioral Aspects of Pharmacy Practice (3 credits)
- SAPH 8500: Pharmacy and Its Environment (3 credits)
- PUBH 6806: Principles of Public Health Research (2 credits) or equivalent
- STAT 5021 or EPSY 8261 or PUBH 6450 or Equivalent: Statistics I (3 - 4 credits)
- STAT 5302 or EPSY 8262 or PUBH 6451 or Equivalent: Statistics II (3 - 4 credits)
At least six credits from the following courses in addition to the above:
- SAPH 8054: Advanced Studies in Pharmaceutical Care Practice (3 credits)
- SAPH 8200: Research Problems (1-4 credits)
- SAPH 8255: Pharmaceutical Marketing (3 credits)
- SAPH 8610: Pharmacoepidemology (3 credits)
- SAPH 8700: Hospital Pharmacy Administration (3 credits)
- SAPH 8702: Hospital Pharmacy Survey (1 credit)
- SAPH 8810: Social Psychology in Pharmacy (3 credits)
- SAPH 8840: Social Measurement in Pharmacy (3 credits)
- SAPH 8333 FTE: Master's (1 credits). Directed research
- SAPH 8444 FTE: Doctoral (1 credits). Directed research
- SAPH 8666 Doctoral Pre-Thesis Credits (1-18 credits)
- SAPH 8777 Thesis Credits: Master's (1-18 credits)
- SAPH 8888 Thesis Credits: Doctoral (1-24 credits)
Focus on the history, foundational frameworks, and key research domains for Social and Administrative Pharmacy through the examination of landmark literature. This course will provide students the opportunity to think critically, reflect on important works, and create a cognitive map of the Social and Administrative Pharmacy discipline and their own focus for study in this program.
Advanced Studies in Pharmaceutical Care Practice. Analyzing practice/implementation of pharmaceutical care. Students confront their assumptions about pharmacy profession, pharmacy practice and pharmaceutical care. Discussions, guest speakers, intensive literature searches/evaluation.
Seminar. Contemporary issues and research problems in sociobehavioral pharmacy, pharmacoeconomics and policy, and clinical research.
Principles and Methods of Implementing Research. Integrates scientific, statistical and practical aspects of research. Interrelationships among design, sample selections, subject access, human subjects requirements, instrument selection and evaluation, data management, analyses plans, grant writing and research career issues. Field experiences.
Research Problems. Individually designed research experience directed at contemporary problems related to drug use process.
Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy. Economic analysis of pharmaceutical sector of health care systems. Problems of pricing production and distribution of pharmaceuticals. Domestic or international policy issues relevant to price and access of pharmaceuticals.
Pharmaceutical Marketing. Historical development of distributive systems, marketing channels, institutions, policies and practices as they relate to pharmaceutical industry. Contemporary issues/theory related to pharmaceutical marketing. Pharmaceutical proportion, especially directed to consumer advertising.
Social and Behavioral Aspects of Pharmacy Practice. Historical development of the profession, its growth and development, emphasizing forces of education, professionalization, attitude modification and changes occurring as a product of legal and organizational forces in society.
Pharmacy and Its Environment. Cultural foundations of pharmacy. Development of present state of pharmacy practice. Role of pharmacist as health practitioner in relation to other health practitioners. Identification of factors (health policy, regulation, economics, research and development, promotion) that affect individual responses to drug therapy.
Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of the uses and effects of drugs in patient populations. The science of pharmacoepidemiology borrows from pharmacology and epidemiology. This course will introduce students to the field of pharmacoepidemiology including study methodology, relevant statistics, data sources, measurement of treatments and outcomes, sources of bias and control of confounding, techniques to reduce bias and confounding, survival analysis and regression techniques, interpretation of results, and drug safety surveillance and risk management.
Hospital Pharmacy Administration. History, classification, organization and functions of hospital departments in relation to the pharmacy service.
Social Psychology in Pharmacy. Behavioral and social aspects of recovery responses to drugs and other therapies, patients' compliance with prescribed therapies, relationships between healthcare professional and patient.
Social Measurement in Pharmacy. How social factors such as innovativeness, compliance, religiosity and stress are measured and tested for reliability and validity. Relationships between theory, concepts, variables, data.
Statistical Methods I: Probability and Inference. Advanced theory, derivations of quantitative statistics. Descriptive statistics, probability, normal distribution. One-/two-sample hypothesis tests, confidence intervals. Chi square tests. One-way analysis of variance, follow up tests.
Statistical Methods II: Regression and the General Linear Model. Analysis of variance designs (two-/three-way), repeated measures, correlation, simple/multiple regression methods, non-parametric procedures, multivariate analyses.
Biostatistics I. Descriptive statistics. Gaussian probability models, point/interval estimation for means/proportions. Hypothesis testing, including t, chi-square and nonparametric tests. Simple regression/correlation. ANOVA. Health science applications using output from statistical packages.
Biostatistics II. Two-way ANOVA, interactions, repeated measures, general linear models. Logistic regression for cohort and case-control studies. Loglinear models, contingency tables, Poisson regression, survival data, Kaplan-Meier methods, proportional hazards models.
Principles of Public Health Research. Evaluation of public health research literature and planning for independent research projects. Formulation of research question, research design, sampling techniques, use of research concepts and data analysis. Data collection techniques, including questionnaires, interviews, and data analysis.
Statistical Analysis. Intensive introduction to statistical methods for graduate students needing statistics as a research technique.
Applied Regression Analysis. Simple, multiple and polynomial regression. Estimation, testing, prediction. Use of graphics in regression. Stepwise and other numerical methods. Weighted least squares, nonlinear models, response surfaces. Experimental research/applications.
Other courses taken to fulfill the major and minor requirements usually will include at least three of the following disciplines. For a complete listing of courses and their descriptions, see the Graduate School Catalog or the catalogs of the individual colleges offering the courses.
- Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology
- Political Science
- Public Health
- Public Administration