Health Policy

The widespread use and dependency on drugs and drug products in today's society, coupled with an increased utilization and application of pharmaceutical services, has created a need for individuals who can study the social, psychosocial, political, legal, historic and economic factors that impinge upon the use, non-use and abuse of drugs. A number of critical factors shaping the health policies in the United States and around the world emphasize the need for increased research concerning the role of pharmaceuticals and the pharmacy practitioner in new and old systems of health care.

Pharmaceutical Policy

Pharmaceutical Policy

Delford Doherty, PhD Student in SAPh Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship Recipient

delford dohertyDelford Doherty, PhD Student in SAPh Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship Recipient

The low-income subsidies (LIS) program for health insurance was created to prevent "out-of-pocket" health care costs for eligible recipients, which have been shown to lower medication adherence and increase medication abandonment.

While there are concerns that LIS leads to subsidy abuse because people are not exposed to the full cost of their medications, Delford Doherty hopes to demonstrate the both effectiveness and benefits of these subsidies.

Doherty, who is finishing his PhD in Social & Administrative Pharmacy, researches the financial assistance for health care available to lower-income Americans. He examines the impact of low-income subsidies on health care utilization, expenditures and the health status of Medicare beneficiaries. The recipient of the Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship from the University of Minnesota Graduate School will present his studies at the upcoming Doctoral Research Showcase.

With his research, Doherty hopes to illuminate the effectiveness of LIS in providing beneficiaries access to prescription drugs, highlight the impact of prescription drug utilization on non-drug health care utilization, and offer information that will "enhance the quality and efficiency of subsidy programs." The results of his research, which he finds personally rewarding, can have insightful and instructive effects on policy, as the Affordable Care Act includes federal subsidies that expand Medicaid, he says.

Doherty grew up in Freetown, Sierra Leone, West Africa. He received a bachelor's degree in biochemistry from Wartburg College in Waverly, Iowa. At Wartburg, he won awards for his service work, leadership in the international student community, contributions to peace and justice, and academic excellence. His extracurricular activities included advocacy and service, which influenced his interest in low-income Medicare beneficiaries.
In 2010, Doherty received a doctorate in pharmacy and a Masters of Public Health from the University of Minnesota, and was named an Outstanding Student by the Minnesota Society of Health-System Pharmacists.

Doherty stayed at the U to pursue his PhD because of the pharmacy program. "My experience at the College of Pharmacy has been incredible," he says, noting its collaborative environment and that faculty members are "committed to teaching and scholarship, accessible, and always willing to assist students." His adviser, Dr. Ron Hadsall, has been instrumental in his graduate education, he says.

Doherty recently accepted a position as the director of managed care services for a professional pharmacy organization, and has long-term aspirations to work in politics and the public sector.

Pharmacy Practice Policy

Pharmacy Practice Policy

2014 National Pharmacist Workforce Survey

2014 national pharmacist workforce survey2014 National Pharmacist Workforce Survey

The primary purpose of this project is to collect reliable information on demographic characteristics, work contributions and the quality of work-life of the pharmacist workforce in the United States during 2014. The project will obtain information from a nationally representative sample of pharmacists. Specific objectives include:

  • Describe demographic and work characteristics of the pharmacist workforce in the United States during 2014.
  • Describe work contributions of the pharmacist workforce in the United States during 2014.
  • Describe the work environment and quality of work-life of the pharmacist workforce in the United States during 2014.

The findings will build upon previously conducted surveys completed in 2000, 2004, and 2009.

The findings have been used by decision-makers and leaders in pharmacy, government agencies, and health policy organizations for understanding the pharmacist workforce in the United States. For more information contact: Caroline Gaither or Jon Schommer.

This research is being funded by the Pharmacy Workforce Center which is comprised of Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, American College of Clinical Pharmacy, American Pharmacists Association, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Bureau of Health Professions, National Alliance of State Pharmacy Associations, National Association of Boards of Pharmacy, National Association of Chain Drug Stores Foundation, National Community Pharmacists Association and Pharmacy Technician Certification Board.

Minnesota Pharmacist Workforce Research

Minnesota Pharmacist Workforce Research

Since 1999, researchers from the University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Care and Health Systems have conducted pharmacist surveys (in odd years) and pharmacy surveys (in even years) for the purpose of describing and monitoring the pharmacist workforce in Minnesota. A summary of Minnesota Pharmacist salaries over time is presented at the end of this document.

Findings from this work, and affiliated work at the national level, have been reported in the following publications.

Peer-Reviewed Scientific Publications

Mott, David A., Bernard A. Sorofman, David H. Kreling, Jon C. Schommer, and Craig A. Pedersen, “A Four-State Summary of the Pharmacy Workforce, Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 2001, Vol. 41, No. 5, 693-702.

Schommer, Jon C. and Craig A. Pedersen, “Pharmacists’ Work Activities in Two Midwestern States,” Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 2001, Vol. 41, No. 5, 760-762.

Mott, David A., Craig A. Pedersen, William R. Doucette, Caroline A. Gaither, Jon C. Schommer, “A National Survey of U.S. Pharmacists in 2000: Validity of a Survey Methodology,” AAPS Pharm Sci, 2001, Vol. 3, No. 4, article 33.

Schommer, Jon C., Craig A. Pedersen, William R. Doucette, Caroline Gaither, and David A. Mott, “Community Pharmacists’ Work Activities in the United States during 2000,” Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, May/June 2002, Vol. 42, No. 3, 399-406.

Mott, David A., William R. Doucette, Caroline A. Gaither, Craig A. Pedersen, and Jon C. Schommer, “A Ten-Year Trend Analysis of Pharmacist Participation in the Workforce,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, Fall 2002, Vol. 66, 223-233.

Schommer, Jon C., Lawrence M. Brown, Marsha K. Millonig, and Elliott M. Sogol, “Career Pathways Evaluation Program: 2002 Pharmacist Profile Survey,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2003, Vol. 67, No. 3, article 5, 13 pages.

Mott, David A., William R. Doucette, Caroline A. Gaither, Craig A. Pedersen, and Jon C. Schommer, “Pharmacists’ Attitudes Toward Worklife: Results from a National Survey of Pharmacists,” Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, May/June 2004, Vol. 44, No. 3, 326-336.

Siracuse, Mark V., Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, Ronald S. Hadsall, and Jon C. Schommer, “Assessing Career Aspirations of Pharmacy Students,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2004, Vol. 68, No. 3, article 75.

Mott, David A., William R. Doucette, Caroline A. Gaither, David H. Kreling, Craig A. Pedersen, and Jon C. Schommer, “Pharmacist Participation in the Workforce: 1990, 2000, 2004,” Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 2006, 46: 322-330.

Kreling, David H., William R. Doucette, David A. Mott, Caroline A. Gaither, Craig A. Pedersen, and Jon C. Schommer, “Community Pharmacists’ Work Environments: Evidence from the 2004 National Pharmacist Workforce Study,” Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 2006 , 46: 331-339.

Schommer, Jon C., Craig A. Pedersen, Caroline A. Gaither, William R. Doucette, David H. Kreling, and David A. Mott, “Pharmacists’ Time in Work Activities (Desired, Actual, and Gaps): Evidence from the 2004 National Pharmacist Workforce Study,” Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 2006, 46: 340-347.

Schommer, Jon C., Reshmi L. Singh, Richard R. Cline, and Ronald S. Hadsall, “Market Dynamics of Community Pharmacies in Minnesota,” Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 2006, Vol. 2, No. 3, 347-358.

Brown, Lawrence M., Jon C. Schommer, David A. Mott, Caroline A. Gaither, William R. Doucette, David P. Zgarrick, and Marcus Droege, “Examining Gender Salary Disparities: An Analysis of the 2003 Multi-State Salary Survey, Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 2006, Vol. 2, No. 3, 370-387.

Gaither, Caroline A., Anagha Nadkarni, David A. Mott, Jon C. Schommer, William R. Doucette, David H. Kreling, and Craig A. Pedersen, “Should I Stay or Should I Go? The Influence of Individual and Organizational Factors on Pharmacists’ Future Work Plans,” Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 2007, Vol. 47, No. 2, 165-173.

Schommer, Jon C., Lawrence M. Brown, and Elliott M. Sogol, “Work Profiles Identified from the 2007 Pharmacist and Pharmaceutical Scientist Career Pathway Profile Survey,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2008, 72(1), Article 02, 7 pages.

Siracuse, Mark V., Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, Ronald S. Hadsall, and Jon C. Schommer, “Third Year Pharmacy Students’ Work Experience and Attitudes and Perceptions of the Pharmacy Profession,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2008, Vol 72, No. 3, article 50, 8 pages.

Gaither, Caroline A. Abir A. Kaheleh, William R. Doucette, David A. Mott, Craig A. Pedersen, and Jon C. Schommer, “A Modified Model of Pharmacists’ Job Stress: The Role of Organizational, Extra-Role and Individual Factors on Work Related Outcomes,” Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 2008, Vol. 4, No. 3, 231-243.

Mott, David A., Richard R. Cline, David H. Kreling, Craig A. Pedersen, William R. Doucette, Caroline A. Gaither, and Jon C. Schommer, “Exploring Trends and Determinants of Pharmacist Wage Rates: Evidence from the 2000 and 2004 National Pharmacist Workforce Survey,” Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 2008, Vol. 48, No. 5, 586-597.

Schommer, Jon C., Lourdes G. Planas, Kathleen A. Johnson, William R. Doucette, Caroline A. Gaither, David H. Kreling, and David A. Mott, “Pharmacist Capacity for Contributions to the Reforming U.S. Healthcare System,” INNOVATIONS in pharmacy, 2010, Vol. 1, No. 1, Article 7, 16 pages.

Kreling, David H., William R. Doucette, Elizabeth H. Chang, Caroline A. Gaither, David A. Mott, and Jon C. Schommer, “Degrees of Difference: Practice Characteristics of BS and PharmD Degree Pharmacists Based on the 2009 National Workforce Survey,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2010, 74(9), Article 159, 8 pages.

Yusuf, Akeem, Jon C. Schommer, David A. Mott, William R. Doucette, Caroline A. Gaither, and David H. Kreling, “Association between Student Load Debt on Graduation, Demographic Characteristics, and Initial Choice of Practice Setting of Pharmacists,” INNOVATIONS in pharmacy, 2011, Vol. 2, No. 3, Article 51, 10 pages.

Doucette, William R., Justin C. Nevins, Caroline A. Gaither, David H. Kreling, David A. Mott, Craig A. Pedersen, and Jon C. Schommer, “Organizational Factors Influencing Pharmacy Practice Change,” Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 2012, Vol. 8, No. 4, 274-284.

Schommer, Jon C., Elliott M. Sogol, and Lawrence M. Brown, “Work Profile Factors Identified from the Career Pathway Evaluation Program, 2012 Pharmacist Profile Survey,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2013, 77 (9), Article 194.

Schommer, Jon C., Akeem A. Yusuf, and Ronald S. Hadsall, “Market Dynamics of Community Pharmacies in Minnesota from 1992 through 2012,” Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 2014, Vol. 10, No. 1, 217-231.

Schommer, Jon C. and Caroline A. Gaither, “A Segmentation Analysis for Pharmacists’ and Patients’ Views of the Pharmacists’ Role,” Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 2014, in press.

Publications in Professional Journals

Schommer, Jon C., Marcia M. Worley, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, and Donald L. Uden, “1999 Minnesota Pharmacist Compensation and Labor Survey: Part 1, Pharmacists’ Hourly Wages and Benefits, Minnesota Pharmacist, 1999, Vol. 53, No. 6: 13-15, 24, 26-28.

Schommer, Jon C., Marcia M. Worley, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, and Donald L. Uden, “1999 Minnesota Pharmacist Compensation and Labor Survey: Part 2, Pharmacists’ Work Activities,” Minnesota Pharmacist, 2000, Vol. 54, No. 2: 17-20, 27-29.

Pedersen, Craig A. and Jon C. Schommer, “Agenda for Pharmacy: Workforce Issues,” Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 2001, Vol. 41, No. 3: 368-370.

Hansen, Richard A., Jon C. Schommer, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, Donald L. Uden, “Minnesota Pharmacist Workforce: A Pharmacy Perspective,” Minnesota Pharmacist, 2001, Vol. 55, No. 4: 17-20.

Schommer, Jon C., Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, Donald L. Uden, and Richard R. Cline, “2001 Minnesota Pharmacist Compensation and Labor Survey: Part 1, Pharmacists’ Hourly Wages and Benefits, Minnesota Pharmacist, March 2002, Vol. 56, No. 2: 29, 31-36.

Schommer, Jon C., Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, Donald L. Uden, and Richard R. Cline, “2001 Minnesota Pharmacist Compensation and Labor Survey: Part 2, Pharmacists’ Work Activities, Minnesota Pharmacist, May 2002, Vol. 56, No. 3: 29-32.

Larson Tom A., Jon C. Schommer, Ronald S. Hadsall, Donald L. Uden, and Tom Gaylord, “The Shortage of Pharmacists in Minnesota: Causes and Impact on Rural Pharmacy,” On Center, Minnesota Center for Rural Health, Fall 2002, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1-4.

Schommer, Jon C., Jenny O. Gordon, and Luz Dalia Sanchez, “Profile of Newly Licensed Pharmacists in Minnesota During 2001, Minnesota Pharmacist, May 2003, Vol. 57, No. 3, 21-24.

Brown, Lawrence M., Marcia K. Millonig, Mitchel Rothholz, Jon C. Schommer, and Elliott M. Sogol, “Career Pathways for Pharmacists,” Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 2003, Vol. 43, No. 4, 459-562.

Singh, Reshmi, Jon C. Schommer, Richard R. Cline, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, Donald L. Uden, “Changes in the Minnesota Pharmacy Workforce between 2000 and 2002, Minnesota Pharmacist, November/December 2003, Vol. 57, No. 6, 23-26,28.

Liu, Lucy, Phantipa Sakthong, Timothy R. McCollor, Reshmi Singh, Jon C. Schommer, Richard R. Cline, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, Donald L. Uden, “2003 Minnesota Pharmacist Compensation and Labor Survey: Part 1, Pharmacists’ Hourly Wages and Benefits,” Minnesota Pharmacist, March/April 2004, Vol. 58, No. 2, 27-33.

Liu, Lucy, Phantipa Sakthong, Timothy R. McCollor, Reshmi Singh, Jon C. Schommer, Richard R. Cline, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, Donald L. Uden, “2003 Minnesota Pharmacist Compensation and Labor Survey: Part 2, Pharmacists’ Work Activities,” Minnesota Pharmacist, May/June 2004, Vol. 58, No. 3, 29-32, 34.

Gupta, Kiran, Phantipa Sakthong, Jon C. Schommer, Richard R. Cline, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, Donald L. Uden, “Changes in the Minnesota Pharmacy Workforce between 2002 and 2004, Minnesota Pharmacist, March/April 2005, Vol. 59, No.2, 21-23, 40-41.

Sakthong, Phantipa, Yingli Yuan, Jon C. Schommer, Richard R. Cline, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, and Donald L. Uden, “2005 Minnesota Pharmacist Compensation and Labor Survey: Part 1, Pharmacists’ Hourly Wages and Benefits,” Minnesota Pharmacist, 2006, March/April, 16-19.

Sakthong, Phantipa, Yingli Yuan, Jon C. Schommer, Richard R. Cline, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, and Donald L. Uden, “2005 Minnesota Pharmacist Compensation and Labor Survey: Part 2, Pharmacists’ Work Activities,” Minnesota Pharmacist, 2006, May/June, 26-28.

Omar, Moustapha, Yingli Yuan, Yen-Wen Chen, Jon C. Schommer, Richard R. Cline, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, and Donald L. Uden, “Changes in the Minnesota Pharmacy Workforce between 2002 and 2006, Minnesota Pharmacist, March/April 2007, 28-31.

Schommer, Jon C., Elliott M. Sogol, and Lawrence M. Brown, “Career Pathways for Pharmacists,” Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 2007, Vol. 47, No. 5, 563-564.

Omar, Moustapha, Jon C. Schommer, Richard R. Cline, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, and Donald L. Uden, “2007 Minnesota Pharmacist Compensation and Labor Survey: Part 1, Pharmacists’ Hourly Wages and Benefits,” Minnesota Pharmacist, Spring 2008, 34-37.

Omar, Moustapha, Jon C. Schommer, Richard R. Cline, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, and Donald L. Uden, “2007 Minnesota Pharmacist Compensation and Labor Survey: Part 2, Pharmacists’ Work Activities,” Minnesota Pharmacist, Summer 2008, 29-31.

Omar, Moustapha, Jon C. Schommer, Richard R. Cline, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, and Donald L. Uden, “Changes in the Minnesota Pharmacy Workforce between 2002 and 2008,” Minnesota Pharmacist, Spring 2009, 22-25.

Schommer, Jon C., Richard R. Cline, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, and Donald L. Uden, “2009 Minnesota Pharmacist Compensation and Labor Survey,” Minnesota Pharmacist, Fall 2009, 29-33.

Mott, David A., William R. Doucette, Caroline A. Gaither, David H. Kreling, and Jon C. Schommer, “Trends in Work Participation of U.S. Pharmacists: Summary of Results from the National Pharmacist Workforce Surveys,” Journal of the Pharmacy Society of Wisconsin, 2010.

Yusuf, Akeem, Jon C. Schommer, Richard R. Cline, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, and Donald L. Uden, “Changes in the Pharmacist and Technician Workforce in Licensed Minnesota Pharmacies between 2002 and 2010,” Minnesota Pharmacist, Fall 2010, 16-21.

Schommer, Jon C., William R. Doucette, Caroline A. Gaither, David H. Kreling, and David A. Mott, “The 2009 Pharmacist Workforce Survey and What it Means for Your Future,” Student Pharmacist, January/February 2011, 12-14.

Schommer, Jon C., Akeem Yusuf, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, and Donald L. Uden, “2011 Minnesota Pharmacist Compensation and Labor Survey,” Minnesota Pharmacist, Fall 2011, 26-29.

Schommer, Jon C., Caroline A. Gaither, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, and Donald L. Uden, “Changes in the Pharmacist and Technician Workforce in Licensed Minnesota Pharmacies between 2002 and 2012,” Minnesota Pharmacist, Fall 2012, 26 and online at www.mpha.org.

Knapp, Katherine and Jon C. Schommer, “Finding a Path through Times of Change,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2013, Vol. 77, No. 5, Article 91 (4 pages).

Schommer, Jon C., Caroline A. Gaither, Oscar W. Garza, Ronald S. Hadsall, Tom A. Larson, Stephen W. Schondelmeyer, and Donald L. Uden, “2013 Minnesota Pharmacist Compensation and Labor Survey,” Minnesota Pharmacist, Spring 2014, in press.

National Quality Forum: Multistakeholder Input on Priority Setting for Health Care Performance Measurement - Health Workforce

national quality forumNational Quality Forum: Multistakeholder Input on Priority Setting for Health Care Performance Measurement - Health Workforce

Achieving the National Quality Strategy’s aims of better care, affordable care, and healthy people/healthy communities will require an adequate supply and distribution of a well-trained workforce. NQF recognizes the importance of this area and has repeatedly identified it as a key building block for improving health and healthcare. This work is intended to provide public and private stakeholders, including policymakers, healthcare providers, health systems, and educational institutions with the resources and knowledge to advance performance measurement in the deployment of the healthcare workforce in ways that promote effective prevention and care coordination.

PCHS Department Faculty, Dr. Barbara Brandt and Dr. Jon Schommer are serving on this committee and representing the pharmacy profession in these discussions and deliberations.

To learn more about this project or the overall Priorities work, you may contact Allison Ludwig at 202-783-1300 or aludwig@qualityforum.org.

This research is being funded by the Department of Health and Human Services.

Health Policy

Health Policy

Medication Therapy Management Digests

Jon Schommer has served as Principal Investigator for each of the six Medication Therapy Management Environmental Scans upon which the Medication Therapy Management Digests are based. The goal of this research is to track changes and trends regarding implementation and development phases of MTM services and related programs. The objectives of this research are to address the following questions:

  1. What is the value associated with pharmacist-provided MTM services from the provider and payer perspectives?
  2. What specific measures, if any, are providers and payers using to quantify MTM costs and benefits?
  3. What are barriers to providing MTM services to individuals reported by providers and payers?
  4. What methods/strategies are providers and payers using to incorporate pharmacists providing MTM services into new/emerging inter-disciplinary team-based models of care (e.g. Accountable Care Organizations, Medical Home Models)?
  5. What strategies are providers and payers using to compensate pharmacists / pharmacies for services provided in new/emerging interdisciplinary team-based models of care?
  6. What practice/organizational changes have providers and payers made from 2012 to 2013?

The findings from this research show that:

  • Confidence in pharmacists continues to grow
  • Pharmacists are reducing gaps and improving performance for health plans
  • MTM work systems and MTM processes of care are being aligned with desired outcomes of care

There is a sense of readiness to go to new levels of MTM provision through the alignment of work systems, processes and outcomes for MTM. Some of these changes are beyond traditional MTM approaches and may be aligning with the new health care environment that is merging via (1) health care reform legislation and (2) market forces.

For more information, contact Jon Schommer at schom010@umn.edu. Funding for this research was provided by the American Pharmacists Association.

National Patient Safety Initiative

brian isettsWhile on sabbatical at CMS, Professor Brian Isetts worked in the CMS Innovation Center to advance aims of the National Quality Strategy. This report provides interim results indicating that 15,000 lives and $4.1 billion in costs have been saved in the first two years of the initiative.

Disease Policy

Disease Policy

SAPH Graduate Student, Ben Aronson -- Focusing upon policy implications for treatment of indigenous individuals with type 2 diabetes

ben aronsonThe AFPE Board of Grants of the American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education (AFPE) has awarded Dr. Ben Aronson (Advisor, Dr. Melissa Walls) a 2014 AFPE Pre-Doctoral Fellowship in the Pharmaceutical Sciences. The total stipend is $6,500. The period covered is September 1, 2014 to August 31, 2015. Dr. Aronson's research is focused upon "Factors Influencing Self-Care and Medication Adherence in Indigenous Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes."

According to AFPE, the recipient must be registered as a full-time student in a PhD degree program in the pharmaceutical sciences and is to be identified as an "AFPE Fellow" during the year covered by the fellowship. The primary goal of the AFPE Fellowship program is to identify and support students who have the potential to become leaders in the pharmaceutical profession. The selection process encompasses not only an examination of academic achievement, but also accomplishments that reflect the stature of the “total individual.” When Cecil Rhodes established the Rhodes Scholarship program in 1902, he wanted “well-rounded” students who have a balance of skills. This same philosophy prevails at AFPE.

AFPE Fellows reflect qualities such as leadership, initiative, perseverance, cultural sensitivity and interest in professional activities

Population Health

Population Health

Saph Graduate Student, Miigis Gonzalez -- Focusing On Tribal Community Development: Food As Medicine

The Society for the Preservation of American Indian Culture (SPAIC) has awarded Miigis Gonzalez (Advisor, Dr.Michelle Johnson-Jennings) a 2014 Lynn Reyer Award for Tribal Community Development. Miigis' research is focused upon "Food as Medicine."

According to SPAIC, the selection process was very competitive this year with many outstanding projects being submitted from across the United States and in many academic disciplines.

SAPH Graduate Student, Weiping Su -- Focusing on the impact of prescription benefit design changes on the commercially insured populations

weiping suThe University of Minnesota, Graduate Fellowship Committee has completed its review of all nominations for the 2014-15 Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship (DDF) program and has awarded a Fellowship to SAPh Graduate Student - Weiping Su (Advisor, Dr. Angie Carlson). This application process is both demanding and competitive. Please join me in congratulating Weiping Su on this great news!

The Fellowship includes a DDF Conference Presentation Grant for Fellows invited to present their work at a national or international conference outside the Twin Cities metropolitan area. The grant includes reimbursement of the conference registration fee and a stipend of $600 to be used towards conference travel expenses. Fellows also participate in monthly DDF seminars and the annual poster session.

The Fellowship is intended to enable PhD candidates of particular promise to devote full-time effort to the research and writing of the dissertation during 2014-15. Weiping's dissertation work is focused upon "The Impact of Benefit Design Changes on Prescription Utilization and Medication Adherence in a Commercially Insured Continuously Enrolled Population."

Weiping also is the 2013 recipient of the "Wertheimer Leadership Fellowship," and the 2013 "St. Peter and Leiner Family Outcomes Research Fellowship in Social and Administrative Pharmacy.

2013 national consumer survey2013 National Consumer Survey On The Medication Experience

2013 NATIONAL CONSUMER SURVEY ON THE MEDICATION EXPERIENCE

  • See this interactive map that summarizes descriptive findings by U.S. Census Division.

Over 500 million times a day in the United States, individuals make the decision to-take or not-to-take a prescription medication. Eighty percent of the way chronic diseases are prevented and managed is with medications. In any given week, 81% of U.S. adults take at least one medication, and nearly one-third take five or more different medications. A person’s regular interaction with medications is not only a frequently and consistently occurring health care event, it also interfaces with almost all other aspects of his or her health care.

As the U.S. health-care system moves away from fragmented approaches and closer to a patient-centered care approach, there is a need for a way to unify and coordinate individual’s health care even as these individual’s enter and exit various components of the health-care system and as they shift between their preferred identity as a person and their sometimes necessary identity as a patient. We suggest that the “medication experience” can be used as a unifying and coordinating concept to bridge this dichotomy.

A person’s medication experience is his or her personal approach to the use of medicines and is shaped by a person’s traditions, religion, culture, life experiences, and what they have learned from others. A person’s medication experience influences: expectations for care, concerns about care, understanding of care, involvement in care, levels of confidence in health care services, confidence in clinicians’ abilities, trust in information, medication-taking behaviors, and other health-related behaviors.

Study Objectives and Methods

The overall goal for the National Consumer Survey on the Medication Experience was to collect initial data for describing respondents’ medication experiences. The specific objectives for this study were to identify and describe consumer segments based on the following components of the medication experience:

  1. Healthcare consumer type
  2. Medication beliefs
  3. Patient activation
  4. Information seeking
  5. Nature of interactions with health professionals for decision-making

The findings showed that the medication experience is more than a clinical experience … it is a social and personal experience. Typically, the health care system views the medication experience in terms of clinical problem-solving (prescribing, monitoring, reconciling) and in terms of medication regimen adherence (following directions). Our findings revealed that the medication experience is rooted in medication beliefs, personal abilities and motivations, information processing, decision-making, relationships, finances, and the effects of life experiences.

Patients vary widely in their make-up, their preferences, and their needs. Some patients don’t want to receive any information from others about their medications while others desire to take an active role in making decisions about them. Some people want information about effects of medications and others want to know about safety. In addition, when people seek information about medicines, there is a high likelihood that they will involve a personal contact, either lay or professional, in their search. This all underlines the importance of social networks in the decisions we make about prescription drugs. Patients have different abilities, motivations, and needs when it comes to medication use. The challenge, then, is to meet the needs of each individual.

We propose that the findings provide insights for (a) establishing national priorities for patient-centered outcomes research, (b) accounting for treatment heterogeneity in comparative-effectiveness studies, and (c) incorporating individuals’ medication experiences into improved quality and efficiency of health care. For more information, contact Jon Schommer, PhD (schom010@umn.edu). Funding for this research was provided by the University of Minnesota Grant Award Program.

Consumer Protection

Consumer Protection

Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion

a screenful of sugarDirect-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion

PCHS faculty member, Jon Schommer, and Dartmouth Linguistics Professor Lewis Glinert examined the corporate websites dedicated to the 100 best-selling prescription drugs and found a startling lack of consistency in an industry where advertising standards are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

"Communicating via a website is common practice today," says Glinert, "and consumers are very savvy about doing their own research on the Internet. The FDA has rules about direct-to-consumer print and television drug advertising, so we think it makes sense to also regulate websites and other marketing tools when it comes to prescription medicine. Consumers need consistent and balanced information."

Schommer and Glinert presented their initial findings in a presentation titled, “Manufacturers’ prescription drug web sites: A grey area of discourse and ethics,” at the Communication, Medicine and Ethics (COMET) 2010 Conference at Boston University School of Public Health. Glinert and Schommer have previously published on the topic of direct-to-consumer drug advertising and also have presented their research at an FDA hearings. Recently, they published a book on the topic entitled “A Screenful of Sugar? Prescription Drug Websites Investigated” (2014, Peter Lang Publishing).

With drug information rapidly migrating to the Web, the chronically poor standards of drug information available to consumers in the developed and the developing world are being further compromised. Their book offers insight into the uncharted waters of prescription drug information and promotion on the internet and suggests how it might be transformed into an unprecedented agent for good. It traces the social and political history of prescription drug information and marketing to Western consumers, offers a social and communicative profile of prescription drug Web sites, and evaluates the most widely used sources of prescription drug information, from government organizations and information companies and TV-related sites, to health service provider sites, manufacturers’ brand sites, and social media, including YouTube and Wikipedia. The focus throughout is on practical outcomes: How can information for consumer decision making be optimized and how can consumers use it responsibly?

Funding for their research in this domain has been provided by the Food and Drug Administration, University of Minnesota, Dartmouth College, Recomm International, Pharmacia Corporation, American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education, and the Peters Endowment. 

For more information, you may contact Jon Schommer (schom010@umn.edu) or Lewis Glinert (lewis.h.glinert@dartmouth.edu).

Pharmacists’ Reactions to MTMs and Tools

consumerreports best buy drugsPharmacists’ Reactions to MTMs and Tools

The Minnesota Pharmacy Practice-Based Research Network collaborated with Consumer Reports on a project that described pharmacists’ reactions to information support tools for Medication Therapy Management.

Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs™ (CRBBD) is a public education project of Consumer Reports that provides free guidance on prescription medicines, with a mission to provide information to help guide prescription drug choices, based on effectiveness, safety and price.

Consumer Reports (CR) would like to develop a tool to be used in one-on-one patient/pharmacist interactions including Medication Therapy Management (MTM) sessions. The goal of the tool is to facilitate the discussion between the patient and the pharmacist as they jointly review all of the patient’s currently prescribed drugs and evaluate potential alternatives.

The desired long term outcomes include the greatest cost savings for the patient while maintaining both safety and efficacy; improved medication adherence; and a solidified patient-pharmacist relationship.

For more information about his research, contact Jon Schommer, PhD at schom010@umn.edu.

Funding for this research was provided by Consumer Reports.