Foundational Trailblazers: Wiley Baines, Frederick D. Inge & George Lark

The thesis by Mozella Ester Lewis in 1925, and recaptured by Bond in 2016, captures the history of African American and Black individuals in pharmacy during the early 1920s. Of the twelve University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy Black and African American graduates during this time, most went into pharmacy practice to serve the needs of the communities in Minnesota.

However, three alumni (Wiley Baines (PhmC 1921),  Frederick D. Inge (PhmC 1923, BS 1924), George Lark (PhmC 1923, BS 1923)) from the University Minnesota College of Pharmacy went on to teach at Meharry Pharmaceutical College, which was a department of the Meharry Medical College. Meharry Pharmaceutical College was one of the original nine pharmacy programs established for training African Americans between 1868 and 1927. While these nine programs issued more than 700 pharmacy diplomas to African Americans, only two of these schools remain in existence today. They are Howard University and Xavier University of Louisiana (ABHP). While Meharry Medical College continues to train medical, dental and graduate students today, the Meharry Pharmaceutical College closed in 1938. The nine programs at that time created a path for diversity in pharmacy that continues throughout the country today.


Bond G. Recovering and Expanding Mozella Esther Lewis's Pioneering History of African-American Pharmacy Students, 1870–1925. 2016; 58(1): 3-23.

Association of Black Health System Pharmacists (ABHP).  Celebrating Black History: Remembering the Early Defunct African American Pharmacy Schools. accessed 2/12/2021.